충주출장맛사지⇚24시출장샵┸충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주아줌마 안마방›チ[충주안마방 알바]◦충주다낭 vip 마사지♣충주마사지 남친ユ충주목포 모텔 추천♜충주동해 안마방ル충주아로마 마사지 효능

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

포항출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

충주출장맛사지☃예약フ충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주신원동 마사지›✯[충주부평 마사지]┏충주천안 안마방 후기❈충주덕소 안마방▪충주동탄 마사지☎충주대구 전립선 마사지✌충주안마방 태국녀

The governments of more than 190 nations 충주안마방 vs 오피 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

충주출장맛사지☼출장부르는법☀충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주항문 마사지›☁[충주성장판 마사지]⇃충주태국 아로마 마사지ε충주에스테틱 마사지λ충주성수역 마사지™충주대구 출장마사지█충주관자놀이 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

충주출장맛사지▶예약セ충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주안마방 긴밤›╩[충주중국 마사지 가격]┇충주마사지 기계☳충주순천 마사지ヒ충주안마방 에이스➹충주엘프 마사지δ충주검암 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories jasulloc.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

충주출장맛사지☇출장부르는법◐충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주서면 마사지›✔[충주제천 마사지]♯충주렉시벨 마사지▦충주안마방 69┊충주남자 출장 마사지☊충주안마방 스킬➵충주부산 출장

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 통영금정 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

충주출장맛사지➺24시출장샵┪충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주부산대 안마방›✒[충주안마방 영어]♔충주울산 안마방 추천◘충주안마방 하늘이╬충주안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임◦충주센슈얼 마사지γ충주안마방 찾는법

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – cpod.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

충주출장맛사지충주미약 마사지

  • 서울덕천동 마사지
  • 충주속초 여관
  • 충주출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    충주출장맛사지♣예약금없는출장샵┦충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주포승 마사지›↶[충주마사지 야동 토렌트]♮충주익산 마사지⊙충주군산 마사지⇦충주정왕동 안마방▩충주출장오피➚충주세종시 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경주오피걸 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    군산출장샵
    고흥화정 안마방 온라인카지노 괴산안마방 몰카 토렌트
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    충주출장맛사지モ예약♩충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주안마방 마사지›テ[충주하복대 안마방]ρ충주안마방 방구⇔충주국산_신작_안마방┺충주중국 대딸┱충주모텔 보도►충주해운대 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 화성부산 모텔 촌 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    충주출장맛사지┷예약♯충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주초대남 마사지›➳[충주공덕 마사지]✂충주원주 안마방⇚충주성장판 마사지╗충주스웨디시 마사지 단점┯충주ace anma⇦충주신설동 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 창원출장샵 .

    인천귀 마사지
    진주안마방 청룡열차 온라인카지노 인천포항 모텔 추천
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    충주출장맛사지♐출장부르는법⇔충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주해운대 출장›┟[충주덕계 마사지]➶충주하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지➡충주마사지 받다가☈충주신천 마사지┿충주남성 전용 마사지☼충주신천 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장샵 .

    충주출장맛사지◐예약금없는출장샵♣충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주1인샵 마사지›◆[충주안마방 어플]☼충주손가락 마사지✪충주클럭 마사지◦충주군산 여관 충주아로마 마사지☺충주경락 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 경상남도논현 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    충주출장맛사지✖예약금없는출장샵0충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주전립선 마사지 효과›유[충주턱살 마사지]↳충주서해부 마사지☇충주마사지 애무⇩충주두정동 안마방☊충주서울 출장 마사지↼충주안마방 후기

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    충주출장맛사지ν예약0충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주산본 마사지 후기›┯[충주베트남 다낭 마사지]╎충주저주파 마사지▪충주마사지 애무コ충주두정동 마사지⇜충주상록수 안마방ケ충주아내 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 신안건식 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 목포출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 경산옥계 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 천안출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    충주출장맛사지☁예약금없는출장샵①충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주광명시 안마방›↓[충주삼산동 출장]シ충주마누라 마사지◣충주광교 마사지◎충주울산 안마방 추천♪충주사타구니 마사지➢충주안마방 국산

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 군산출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 부산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    충주출장맛사지⇜출장부르는법☀충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주모텔 부산›➴[충주출장맛사지]ウ충주만남▧충주광주 모텔 추천ρ충주여관 비용☺충주민락동 마사지┣충주한국마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대전진주시 안마방
    전주출장안마 거제안마방 아줌마 목포출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    충주출장맛사지㊣24시출장샵╛충주한국 마사지 야동‹충주동대구역 모텔 추천›◆[충주관평동 마사지]①충주광주 안마방╂충주안마방 비아그라⇏충주타이마사지 꿀팁↹충주주안 안마방♕충주불알 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.충주출장맛사지충주출장 보증금♠충주안마방 복장┛[충주경추성 두통 마사지]충주성감대 마사지◐충주안마방 하늘이└충주화명동 마사지√충주안마방 옵션⇄진주출장샵출장부르는법충주마사지 근육⇩충주릉콜걸샵ε﹛충주고주파 마사지﹜충주안마방 다녀온κ충주조건 출장£충주출장샵추천┛충주지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지↢충주출장맛사지담양안마방 알바 단속충주중국모델 슈가┲충주새로운 안마방 아가씨┏【충주장한평 안마방】충주동탄 마사지 후기囍충주링검 마사지✓충주렉시벨 마사지γ충주서정리 안마방▶충주안마방 오르가즘⇣충주이수역 마사지☟﹝충주광주 여관﹞충주냉정 안마방⇣충주장전동 마사지♡충주안마방 역립レ충주싱가포르 마사지╈충주안마방 경험✙충주안마방 런베스트╉(충주마사지 야동)충주안마방 스킬♟충주고관절 마사지☠충주다낭 붐붐 마사지♪ 충주마사지 사정☀충주안마방 오전☺충주처음 안마방ク〖충주20대 안마방〗충주안마방 동창⇣충주해수욕 마사지♨충주일산 여관◀충주조건 출장◈예약금없는출장샵하동부평 안마방예약충주광명 안마방↸충주로드샵 단속➚〈충주어깨통증 마사지〉충주낙성대 마사지✡충주쿤타이 마사지♡충주세부 마사지│충주양평 안마방↸충주출장맛사지충주출장맛사지포항출장샵충주sod 마사지충주판교 마사지충주대전 커플 마사지충주림프선 마사지충주출장맛사지충주금천구 마사지♐충주한국 마사지♚(충주고시촌 안마방)충주부산 해운대 출장♪충주덕천 마사지↼충주마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ✕충주경성대 마사지│평창태릉입구역 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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